The driver (guide optional) will pick you up from your hotel in Khiva. The first qala to reach is Toprak Qala which is 100 km from Khiva. Topraq qala means "Clay Fort" which standing over 20 m tall and is dated in the Kushan period, around 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. Some historians assume that it was a royal summer or winter residence but not capital. Toprak qala was used until the 6th century AD with short periods when it was abandoned. Afterward, it was occupied by squatters till the Mongol invasion.